Monthly Archives: May 2017

Services computing

Services Computing has become a cross-discipline that covers the science and technology of bridging the gap between business services and IT services. The underneath breaking technology suite includes Web services and service-oriented architecture (SOA), cloud computing, business consulting methodology and utilities, business process modeling, transformation and integration. This scope of Services Computing covers the whole life-cycle of services innovation research that includes business componentization, services modeling, services creation, services realization, services annotation, services deployment, services discovery, services composition, services delivery, service-to-service collaboration, services monitoring, services optimization, as well as services management. The goal of Services Computing is to enable IT services and computing technology to perform business services more efficiently and effectively.

Computer Support Services, Inc., or CSSI, is a multi-national company providing technology solutions and professional services. The company is best known for releasing CoreIntegrator Workflow, a Workflow/Business Process Management (BPM) technology suite. Computer Support Services, Inc. (CSSI) is a Microsoft Silver Certified Partner and a re-seller of Microsoft Dynamics GP, formerly known as Great Plains, a Platinum Partner of Intermec and a Gold Partner of Motorola Solutions providing supply chain solutions CSSI headquarters is located in Lewisburg, Pennsylvania, along with offices in Pittsburgh and Wyomissing. CSSI is the parent company of CSSI Global Technologies located in Bangalore, India. In 2007, Inc. 5000 awards recognized CSSI as one of the top 5,000 fastest growing companies in the United States.

In telecommunication, a telecommunications service is a service provided by a telecommunications provider, or a specified set of user-information transfer capabilities provided to a group of users by a telecommunications system. The telecommunications service user is responsible for the information content of the message. The telecommunications service provider has the responsibility for the acceptance, transmission, and delivery of the message. For purposes of regulation by the Federal Communications Commission under the U.S. Communications Act of 1934 and Telecommunications Act of 1996, the definition of telecommunications service is “the offering of telecommunications for a fee directly to the public, or to such classes of users as to be effectively available directly to the public, regardless of the facilities used.” Telecommunications, in turn, is defined as “the transmission, between or among points specified by the user, of information of the user’s choosing, without change in the form or content of the information as sent and received.”

In computer networking, a network service is an application running at the network application layer and above, that provides data storage, manipulation, presentation, communication or other capability which is often implemented using a client-server or peer-to-peer architecture based on application layer network protocols. Each service is usually provided by a server component running on one or more computers (often a dedicated server computer offering multiple services) and accessed via a network by client components running on other devices. However, the client and server components can both be run on the same machine. Clients and servers will often have a user interface, and sometimes other hardware associated with it.

In computer network programming, the application layer is an abstraction layer reserved for communications protocols and methods designed for process-to-process communications across an Internet Protocol (IP) computer network. Application layer protocols use the underlying transport layer protocols to establish host-to-host connections for network services.

TCP-IP network services

Port numbers

Many Internet Protocol-based services are associated with a particular well-known port number which is standardized by the Internet technical governance. For example, World-Wide-Web servers operate on port 80, and email relay servers usually listen on port 25.

TCP versus UDP

Different services use different packet transmission techniques. In general, packets that must get through in the correct order, without loss, use TCP, whereas real time services where later packets are more important than older packets use UDP. For example, file transfer requires complete accuracy and so is normally done using TCP, and audio conferencing is frequently done via UDP, where momentary glitches may not be noticed. UDP lacks built-in network congestion avoidance and the protocols that use it must be extremely carefully designed to prevent network collapse.

Computer Learns to Recognize Sounds

In recent years, computers have gotten remarkably good at recognizing speech and images: Think of the dictation software on most cellphones, or the algorithms that automatically identify people in photos posted to Facebook.

But recognition of natural sounds — such as crowds cheering or waves crashing — has lagged behind. That’s because most automated recognition systems, whether they process audio or visual information, are the result of machine learning, in which computers search for patterns in huge compendia of training data. “Computer vision has gotten so good that we can transfer it to other domains,” says Carl Vondrick, an MIT graduate student in electrical engineering and computer science and one of the paper’s two first authors. “We’re capitalizing on the natural synchronization between vision and sound. We scale up with tons of unlabeled video to learn to understand sound.” The researchers tested their system on two standard databases of annotated sound recordings, and it was between 13 and 15 percent more accurate than the best-performing previous system. On a data set with 10 different sound categories, it could categorize sounds with 92 percent accuracy, and on a data set with 50 categories it performed with 74 percent accuracy. On those same data sets, humans are 96 percent and 81 percent accurate, respectively.

Complementary modalities

Because it takes far less power to collect and process audio data than it does to collect and process visual data, the researchers envision that a sound-recognition system could be used to improve the context sensitivity of mobile devices. When coupled with GPS data, for instance, a sound-recognition system could determine that a cellphone user is in a movie theater and that the movie has started, and the phone could automatically route calls to a prerecorded outgoing message. Similarly, sound recognition could improve the situational awareness of autonomous robots.

Visual language

The researchers’ machine-learning system is a neural network, so called because its architecture loosely resembles that of the human brain. A neural net consists of processing nodes that, like individual neurons, can perform only rudimentary computations but are densely interconnected. Information — say, the pixel values of a digital image — is fed to the bottom layer of nodes, which processes it and feeds it to the next layer, which processes it and feeds it to the next layer, and so on. The training process continually modifies the settings of the individual nodes, until the output of the final layer reliably performs some classification of the data — say, identifying the objects in the image.

Vondrick, Aytar, and Torralba first trained a neural net on two large, annotated sets of images: one, the ImageNet data set, contains labeled examples of images of 1,000 different objects; the other, the Places data set created by Oliva’s group and Torralba’s group, contains labeled images of 401 different scene types, such as a playground, bedroom, or conference room. Once the network was trained, the researchers fed it the video from 26 terabytes of video data downloaded from the photo-sharing site Flickr.


To compare the sound-recognition network’s performance to that of its predecessors, however, the researchers needed a way to translate its language of images into the familiar language of sound names. So they trained a simple machine-learning system to associate the outputs of the sound-recognition network with a set of standard sound labels. For that, the researchers did use a database of annotated audio — one with 50 categories of sound and about 2,000 examples. Those annotations had been supplied by humans. But it’s much easier to label 2,000 examples than to label 2 million. And the MIT researchers’ network, trained first on unlabeled video, significantly outperformed all previous networks trained solely on the 2,000 labeled examples.


Accessing Online Learning Material

Educational technology is the use of both physical hardware and educational theoretics. It encompasses several domains, including learning theory, computer-based training, online learning, and, where mobile technologies are used, m-learning. Accordingly, there are several discrete aspects to describing the intellectual and technical development of educational technology:Educational technology is “the study and ethical practice of facilitating learning and improving performance by creating, using, and managing appropriate technological processes and resources”.

  • educational technology as the theory and practice of educational approaches to learning
  • educational technology as technological tools and media that assist in the communication of knowledge, and its development and exchange
  • educational technology for learning management systems (LMS), such as tools for student and curriculum management, and education management information systems (EMIS)
  • educational technology as back-office management, such as Training Management System for logistics and budget management, and Learning Record Store (LRS) for learning data storage and analysis.
  • educational technology itself as an educational subject; such courses may be called “Computer Studies” or “Information and communications technology (ICT)”.

An educational technologist is someone who is trained in the field of educational technology. Educational technologists try to analyze, design, develop, implement and evaluate process and tools to enhance learning.

Accessing learning materials, that is, lecture slides, video lectures, shared assignments, and forum messages, is the most frequently performed online learning activity. However, students with different purposes, motivations, and preferences may exhibit different behaviors when accessing these materials. These different behaviors may further affect their learning performance. This study analyzed system logs recorded by a Learning Management System in which 59 computer science students participated in a blended learning course to learn mobile phone programming. The results revealed several significant findings. First, the students viewed the learning materials related to their classroom lectures (i.e., lecture slides and video lectures) for longer and more often than other learning materials (i.e., shared assignments and posted messages). Second, although the students spent a great deal of time viewing the online learning materials, most did not use annotation tools. Third, students’ viewing behaviors showed great variety and were clustered into three behavior patterns: “consistent use students” who intensively used all of the learning materials, “slide intensive use students” who intensively used the lecture slides, and “less use students” who infrequently used any learning material. These different behavior patterns were also associated with their motivation and learning performance. The results are discussed, and several suggestions for teachers, researchers, and system designers are proposed.


  • Distributed learning environments
  • Media in education
  • Post-secondary education
  • Teaching/learning strategies

Given this definition, educational technology is an inclusive term for both the material tools and the theoretical foundations for supporting learning and teaching. Educational technology is not restricted to high technology. Education technology is anything that enhances classroom learning in the utilization of blended or online learning.

However, modern electronic educational technology is an important part of society today.[11] Educational technology encompasses e-learning, instructional technology, information and communication technology (ICT) in education, EdTech, learning technology, multimedialearning, technology-enhanced learning (TEL), computer-based instruction (CBI), computer managed instruction, computer-based training (CBT), computer-assisted instruction or computer-aided instruction (CAI), internet-based training (IBT), flexible learning, web-based training (WBT), online education, digital educational collaboration, distributed learning, computer-mediated communication, cyber-learning, and multi-modal instruction, virtual education, personal learning environments, networked learning, virtual learning environments (VLE) (which are also called learning platforms), m-learning, ubiquitous learning and digital education.

Software Developer

A software developer is a person concerned with facets of the software development process, including the research, design, programming, and testing of computer software. Other job titles which are often used with similar meanings are programmer, software analyst, and software engineer. According to developer Eric Sink, the differences between system design, software development, and programming are more apparent. Already in the current market place there can be found a segregation between programmers and developers, being that one who implements is not the same as the one who designs the class structure or hierarchy. Even more so that developers become systems architects, those who design the multi-leveled architecture or component interactions of a large software system. (see also Debate over who is a software engineer). In a large company, there may be employees whose sole responsibility consists of only one of the phases above. In smaller development environments, a few people or even a single individual might handle the complete process.

A software developer must have a relevant BTEC or HND in any field such as computer science, information technology, engineering, programming, or any other IT related post graduate studies. An ideal software developer is a self-motivated professional carrying a dynamic hands-on experience on key languages of programming such as C++, Javascript, VB, Oracle, UML, Linux, Python, UNIX, XML, HTTP, Smalltalk, Other software testing tools etc.

The key skills required are:

  • Debugging & Problem solving approach
  • Excellent knowledge and understanding of tools and technology
  • Unmatched interpersonal skills
  • Ability to thrive under pressure for long work hours
  • Excellent communication skills
  • Pressure handling skills

Layla Shaikley SM ’13 began her master’s in architecture at MIT with a hunger to redevelop nations recovering from conflict. When she decided that data and logistics contributed more immediately to development than architecture did, ­Shaikley switched to the Media Lab to work with Professor Sandy ­Pentland, and became a cofounder of Wise Systems, which develops routing software that helps companies deliver goods and services.

But Shaikley is perhaps better known for a viral video, “Muslim Hipsters: #mipsterz,” that she and friends created to combat the media stereotypes of Muslim women. It reached hundreds of thousands of viewers and received vigorous positive and negative feedback.

The video “is a really refreshing, jovial view of an underrepresented identity: young American Muslim women with alternative interests in the arts and culture,” Shaikley says. “The narrow media image is so far from the real fabric of Muslim-­American life that we all need to add our pieces to the quilt to create a more accurate image.”

Shaikley’s parents moved from Iraq to California in the 1970s, and she and her five siblings enjoyed a “quintessentially all-­American childhood,” she says. “I grew up on a skateboard, and I love to surf and snowboard.” She feels deeply grateful to her parents, who “always put our needs first,” she adds. “When we visited relatives in Iraq, we observed what life is like when people don’t have the privilege of a free society. Those experiences really shaped my understanding of the world and also my sense of responsibility to give back.”

Shaikley says the sum of her diverse life experiences has helped her as a professional with Wise Systems and as a voice for underrepresented Muslim women.